Patient Maintained Sedation (PMS)


An individualised and safe delivery of propofol for procedural sedation

December 2019


Over the last 15 years we have developed a drug delivery system for propofol that is based on patient-controlled operation of TCI (Target Controlled Infusion) with an added safety feature utilising feedback control. The system allows patients that undergo diagnostic and therapeutic procedures to titrate their level of sedation to their individual needs.


Compared to anaesthesia, the practice of procedural sedation is often managed poorly and many different practices exist. The execution of sedation is often in the hands of inexperienced physicians and the quality monitoring or patient feedback is variable. All this puts patients at risk when undergoing sedation for procedures where anaesthetists are not routinely present.


TCI offers the unique opportunity to titrate the intravenous sedative agent in small increments to allow individual patient needs. Opposite to other control systems where the patient controls a fixed bolus or infusion rate, with TCI the patient controls his/her blood or effect site concentration. We have combined TCI with a patient controlled operation of the infusion pump and added a feedback based safety controller to prevent over-sedation.


The aim is to offer a platform that can be widely used in the clinical arena of sedation without compromising on patient safety. Successful studies have been conducted and published to demonstrated the feasibility, proof of concept and application in small number cohorts. We are now embarking on larger scale clinical studies to improve the control algorithm and to identify subgroups where settings can be adjusted and optimised. We have partnered with an innovative and high-quality device manufacturer to design a suitable infusion pump for clinical use.

If you are interested to get involved in the further developments, please get in touch via e-mail at


Congress Information

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Tivatrainer is an educational programme, developed to explain pharmacokinetic principles and show the pharmacokinetic properties of IV anesthetics and other drugs. TivatrainerX  is the iphone version

Dr Frank Engbers


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